Mushrooms, Mushrooms Everywhere! October 21, 2015 06:00 1 Comment
Walking around the city, we've been noticing a bunch of mushrooms popping up this fall. Wanting to learn a bit more about them, we asked local expert mycologist Paul Kroeger to take us on a mushroom tour of the neighbourhood. Paul agreed and took us along some city blocks surrounding our store in East Van. We went from Strathcona and walking toward Chinatown by cutting through Strathcona gardens.
Walking past MacLean Park, it was quite interesting and not surprising to hear that some of the trees that line the city have been imported from pretty far away. For those who know a bit about fungi, you might realize when transplanting trees, the tree is not the only thing you'll be taking with you. This is because there are fungi (among other organisms) that live symbiotically with trees and plants, passing them water and nutrients and receiving plant sugars in return. Pretty much every tree and plant that has been studied have either or both mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi living either at their roots ("myco" stemming from the latin word mykēs meaning fungus - and rhiza, meaning rhizome or root), or within the plant itself (endo meaning within, and phyte as in plant). Knowing this, you might not be surprised that 45 years ago (this is about the time when scientists finally took fungi out of the plant kingdom and gave them their own kingdom fungi), when the city brought in hornbeam trees from California - the trees didn't come on their own.
We learned that Hornbeam trees - Carpinus betulus - have a symbiotic relationship with a mycorrhizal fungi called Amanita phalloides otherwise known as the death cap. Since 2004, folks have been seeing these deadly poisonous fungi pop up around Vancouver. Paul noted that it's most probable that the fungi have been living at the roots of these hornbeam trees since their move here, but we've only started seeing the mushrooms come up recently because they can only fruit when their tree hits full maturity. We checked under the hornbeam trees that line MacLean Park, but there were no death caps fruiting yet. Nonetheless, this was definitely a good lesson that even though there are very few deadly poisonous mushroom species in North America, they are around and they can also look like other yummy mushrooms. So, it is really important to know your mushrooms before eating them!
Mature Hornbeam trees line MacLean Park in Strathcona
Our walk took us on a journey learning about mushroom identification, and several common species growing locally. Paul spoke of a few identifying features to look for in a mushroom, including whether or not they have gills, the shape of their caps and stems, how delicate they are, and what they smell like.
This little gilled one smells a lot like salmon!
If you're around Strathcona a bit, particularly in the areas along Princess and Adanac, you might have seen mushrooms like this one growing wildly in groups along boulevards or in lawns:
Brown russula growing on Prior and Heatly
Mushrooms of the same family can have totally different traits while still looking incredibly similar. Boletes for example can have either pores, tubes, or gills under their caps!
The blue spots on this bolete are impressions marks and age spots
Often times, characteristics can even be masked or unveiled with age. It's really common to miss hiding stems or veils on young mushrooms. Older mushrooms can also change drastically from their younger selves. For example, as inky caps get older, they start to dissolve and drip into black ink. For this reason, it's really great practice to get to know mushrooms at all stages of their fruiting lives.
If you can believe it, these two mushrooms are the same species!
Some delicious edible mushrooms can grow in suitable spots in your garden. This shaggy parasol is super good to eat, and also likes to grow from compost! An important point to note is that the shaggy parasol has a doppelganger called Chlorophyllum molybdites responsible for the most mushroom poisonings in North America! In this case, a simple way to double check if you have the right mushroom is by doing a spore print. Leave the mushroom cap gills facing down on a white piece of paper over the course of several hours. If the spore print comes out white, you are good to go. If they are green, you can appreciate the mushroom's prettiness but don't eat it - it's poisonous!
Shaggy Parasol hiding in Strathcona Community Gardens
A few feet away from the Shaggy Parasol growing from soil was this little deadly lepiota. Again, it is a good reminder to know your mushroom species, and be very careful of what you are picking because you don't want to end up eating a poisonous mushroom by mistake!
Deadly Lepiota growing Strathcona Community Gardens
Another good thing to learn when identifying fungi is what they like to grow on or with. For example, all pine trees depend on mycorrhizal fungi to survive and thrive. When they die, primary decomposers eat them and break them down. When you learn to identify trees, you can learn about the relationships they likely have with other species. Then you can make some pretty good educated guesses about what kind of mushroom is growing where, or where to look to find specific kinds of mushrooms.
5 Needle Pine Tree by Union Market
Of course, deadly poisonous and edible mushrooms are not the only types of mushrooms that exist. All along Princess Ave south of Adanac we found the legendary Amanita muscaria commonly known as the Fly Agaric mushroom. This mushroom can be toxic, but has also been consumed by many cultures all over the world in ceremony as a psychoactive. In Strathcona and all over East Vancouver, this mushroom is all over the place! In David Aurora's field guide All That the Rain Promises and More... it suggests this red and white amanita to be the inspiration of Santa Claus and the flying reindeers. In Northern Europe, reindeers have grazed (and probably still do) on the hallucinogenic fly agaric. So there you have it, flying reindeers!
Amanita muscaria popping up along Princess Ave.
There was a lot to learn in the few short hours we spent on this walk, huddling together to pass and sniff at different mushrooms growing in abundance in the city. More than for identification and edibility, mushrooms are short windows we can look into for a hint about the thousands of relationships that exist beneath our feet, even when it seems like we're just walking on concrete.
by Kelsey Cham Corbett
October 21st, 2016