Rendering fat and gelatin from waste skin September 29, 2015 06:00 1 Comment
Pork belly often comes with the skin on, but you don't (usually) need the skin for bacon! Unless you want the skin for homemade pork rinds or cracklin's, it's often a waste product. Skin's loaded with collagen, though, and is a great source of gelatin. The subcutaneous fat (visible below, as Felipe of Urban Digs Farm trims a pork belly) is also a valuable resource - it's a great precursor to lard!
Usually, my first step in rendering fat is to run very cold chunks of fat through a meat grinder. The cold helps the fat grind well without mucking up the grinder. Since I just moved though, all my stuff is in storage! This chronicles an improvised method similar to what Michael Ruhlman suggests on p. 262 of Charcuterie.
I've started with the skin and fat chopped up into 1" bits in an enamelled cast iron pan. Ruhlman suggests putting only a tiny amount of water in the pot and letting it evaporate, but since I have skin and want to extract gelatin, I've added a generous amount of water to cover the pieces. I heated it to a simmer on an element and then put it in a low oven for about a day. That's about 24 hours!
The reason I left it so long is that I can see fat attached to the skin that hasn't rendered out yet. I guess the large amount of water keeps the temperature lower, making the fat slow to render out of such large pieces. The last time I did this (sorry, no pictures) I hit it with an immersion blender. This let it render quickly, but made it impossible to strain! So it ended up being a compromise.
After nearly 24 hours, I figured it was time to throw in the towel. There's obviously more fat to be rendered, but with guests on the way and a dearth of cookware, I needed to free up the pan. Here's the chunks scooped into a cheesecloth-lined colander.
The nice thing about the large chunks is that straining was a breeze! This is the fat and gelatin sans skin bits.
I funneled it all into a wide-mouth 1L mason while it was still liquid. I immediately used some of the rendered fat for tamales before taking this picture, but even so I don't think the yield was much more than a cup of lard. That's a lot of futzing for not much result, but I feel good about getting use out of the skin! It's also a good lesson for me not to cut corners and to just borrow a meat grinder (from work) next time I'm doing this.
Curing pancetta in a wine fridge June 09, 2015 10:56
Our friends over at Urban Digs Farm were kind enough to give us an insider's peek at some of their curing pork - and boy does it look appetizing! They dry age it to concentrate the flavour, a practice many commercial butchers have abandoned since it reduces the water weight inside each cut. You can get your hands on some through their Beasty Box Program.
You can get cured pork from them directly, but watching Felipe trip the skin off this side of belly got me thinking about a project I've had on hold for several months: making pancetta! This aromatic, sweet and savoury cured pork belly is often described as a kind of Italian bacon, but I don't think that does it justice.
This is half a side of pork belly, skinned (thanks Felipe!) and trimmed. This piece was about 5lb, which in my experience is about typical. Perhaps obviously, the first step to a great pancetta is to start with a happy, well-fed pig. Urban Digs' food-fed pigs seem like they must be a trump card here.
This is my first effort at Pancetta, so I've tried to follow as closely as possible the recipe from p.44 of Michael Ruhlman and Brian Polcyn's Charcuterie. This is the cure prepared for 5lbs belly - it's got juniper, brown sugar, sea salt, fresh thyme, bay, nutmeg, and #1 prague powder.
The cure gets rubbed all over the belly.
And it's all tucked into a large freezer bag! Charcuterie recommends using a 2 gallon size, but I couldn't find one. This one gallon bag was just a little smaller than I would have liked, so next time I'll try harder to find a larger size. It gets a week in the refrigerator like this with one flip about halfway through. It should come out nice and firm.
After a rinse and pat dry with a lint-free towel, the belly gets rubbed on the meat side with a prodigious amount of ground black pepper.
Note the shininess on the towel - that's cling wrap. I don't use it often, but after struggling to hold the belly in a tight roll while simultaneously tying it with string, I tried this little trick. The belly gets rolled in plastic wrap for a few days to set the shape.
After a couple days the belly has agreed to be in a roll, and it was much easier to get the string tied around it.
The tied roll, ready for curing! Now, here's where things get tricky. I picked up a mini wine fridge at the second-hand store a few months ago, with the intent that it become my new "cave" for aging cheeses and cured meats. Readers will recall that most cheeses and meats (and wines, and vegetable ferments) like to be aged in a cool spot a bit warmer than a refrigerator but a bit cooler than room temperature, and around 60-70% humidity. Since the wine fridge has an adjustable temperature controller built in, it should be the ideal curing chamber if I can just get the humidity sorted. I know there are commercially available humidity controllers, but I'm looking for a lower-tech (cheaper) solution.
I'd left the nigari at work, so I started with coarse sea salt in a tray. There's just a little bit of liquid dripping into the pan on the left.
With the added nigari. We used about 50% of the volume of sea salt. Note the hygrometer showing over 70% humidity - uh oh!
To our delight, it didn't take long for the humidity to drop to just over 60%.
Ten days later there's a good deal of moisture in the salt tray, but we've encountered a problem. When we add nigari, we get 1-2 days with the humidity near 60%, but then it climbs back up to 70% or higher. I think this means all the nigari is dissolved, which is confirmed by the photo above - if you look closely, you'll see it's all coarse granules (sea salt) and no flakes (nigari). And now I'm out of nigari, and the humidity is climbing! Stay tuned for a creative solution :)
Update: my creative solution was to source NaBr, sodium bromide, from a pool supplier. My research indicates that it's sometimes added to brominated pools as a bromine reservoir / chlorine alternative. At 15 celcius it equilabrates to just the right relative humidity. Unfortunately, after calling every pool and spa company in Vancouver, I learned that pure NaBr is a controlled substance in Canada. It can, in theory, produce toxic bromine gas if handled improperly. So, it's back to the drawing board trying to get a mix of NaCl and MgCl that will work!
Update 2: even without perfect humidity control, the rolls look great after three months!
I've been spraying the ends with vinegar, but even so a small amount of white mold is visible in the gaps at the end. I've read recommendations that you trim the ends flat before aging to prevent just this kind of growth. Next time maybe I will. However, the growth here is minimal and I anticipate little problem brushing or cutting it off.
the first slices look great! There was a bit of green mold in there with the white, so I trimmed that off with a clean knife.
once the rough bit at the end is gone, the rounds come off beautifully! The aroma is sweet and nutty.
just another shot of the finished pancetta
I cooked up some nice rounds in a skillet. It's incredible! I thought I would miss the smoky richness of the hot-smoked bacon I usually make, but the complexity and sweet, nutty, concentrated flavour more than makes up for it. It's just a totally different experience. I'll definitely do this again!